2023 WAEC Biology Questions & Answers (Essay & Objectives)

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2023 WAEC Biology Questions and Answers

(Essay and Objectives)

2023 WAEC Biology Answers: Get WAEC 2023 Biology Questions and answers for 2023 Paper 1 and 2 (Essay and Objectives).

We have the 2023 WAEC Biology Questions and Answers Expo, so count yourself lucky to be here on our website, where we provide real and verified answers.

The 2023 WAEC Biology (Essay and Objectives) examination took place on Wednesday, 7th June, 2023 from 9:30AM to 12:30PM (3Hour 0 Minutes).

WAEC 2023 Biology Essay Question and Answers

Question Number 1

1a. What is the classification of living things?

1b. Differentiate between Fungi and plant.

1c. List the classes Living things belong to.

Number 1 Answers


The classification of living things involves grouping organisms based on their characteristics. The current classification system consists of Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.



(i) Decomposition- Fungi decompose organic matter and recycle nutrients, contributing to soil health

(ii) Medicine- Some fungi are used in medicine, such as Penicillium, which produces antibiotics.

(iii) Food- Edible mushrooms are a popular food item across the world. Certain fungi like yeast are used in baking and fermentation to produce wine and beer.

(iv) Industry- Fungi are used in industries like paper manufacturing and in the production of enzymes like citric acid and gluconic acid.



(i) Food- Plants are a major source of food for humans and animals.

(ii) Oxygen production- Through photosynthesis, green plants produce oxygen which is essential to all living organisms.

(iii) Raw materials- Fibers are obtained from plants and are used to make clothing, paper, and other products. Plants like timber and bamboo are used for construction purposes.

(iv) Medicine- Many plants contain compounds with medicinal properties that are used in traditional medicine and pharmaceutical industry.


(i) Cnidaria; Hydra

(ii) Nematoda; Ascaris

(iii) Chordata; Dog, cat

(iv) Annelida ; Earthworm, leeches

(v) Mullusca; Snail, slugs, limpets

Question Number 2

2a. List the functions and Effects of deficiency in plants of IRON, MOLYBDENUM, POTASSIUM and COPPER





-Chlorophyll formation

-Electron transport in photosynthesis

-Enzyme activation

-Nitrogen fixation

Effects of deficiency in plants:

-Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves)

-Stunted growth

-Reduced fruit and seed production

-Interference with nutrient uptake



-Nitrogen fixation

-Enzymatic reactions

-Iron uptake and utilization

-Seed germination and growth

-Chlorophyll formation

Effects of deficiency in plants:

-Reduced nitrogen fixation

-Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves)

-Impaired sulfur metabolism

-Abnormal phosphorus uptake

-Altered enzyme activity



-Osmotic regulation

-Enzyme activation

-Protein synthesis

Effects of deficiency in plants:

-Stunted growth.

-Leaf chlorosis.

-Weak stems.

-Reduced flower and fruit production.

-Increased susceptibility to diseases and pests.



-It plays a vital role in activating various enzymes within plants

-It helps to facilitate photosynthesis

-It helps facilitate respiration in plants

Effects of deficiency in plants:

-Stunted growth

-Yellowing of leaves

-Death of plant tissue

-Reduced fertility

-Increased susceptibility to diseases

Question Number 5

5a1. What are Sense organs?

5aii. List and explain three types of Sense organs.

5bi. How to does Male lions, Red squirrels and Male Gorillas protect they territories?

5bii. How does Swans, Seahorses and Prairie voles mate?

Answer Number 5


(ai) Sense organs are specialized structures in the body of living organisms that enable them to perceive and respond to environmental stimuli.


1. Nose: Responds to airborne chemical substances like aroma or odors.
2. Taste buds: Detect chemicals present in food or solution to give the perception of taste.
3. Olfactory epithelium: Receives and detects dissolved substances in the mouth and throat, giving a sense of smell.


1. Male lions: Patrol and mark their territory with urine to protect their pride of females and young ones.
2. Red squirrels: Territorial and have defined territories that they defend and mark using scent glands.
3. Male Gorillas: Beat their chests and charge at intruders who try to enter their territory.


1. Swans: Mate for life and form long-term pair bonds that they maintain.
2. Seahorses: Form permanent pair bonds during breeding seasons and raise offspring together.
3. Prairie voles: A species of rodent that forms lifelong bonds and engages in behaviors like grooming and huddling to maintain social bonding.



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