2023 WAEC Literature Questions & Answers For Drama & Poetry

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2023 WAEC Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) Answers: Get WAEC 2023 Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) Questions and answers (2023 WAEC Literature) for 2023 Drama and Poetry.

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The 2023 WAEC Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) examination took place on Friday, 26th May, 2023 from 3:00PM to 5:30PM (2Hours 30 Minutes).

WAEC 2023 Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) Answers

Answer Number 1

The play explores the spate of cabal or conspiracy which is a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act. The conspirators in this play includes Lamboi and Musa. One of their selfish aims or objectives is not only to take charge of the chiefdom but also to kill and maim at will.Firstly, Lamboi together with Musa, the seer and medicine man nurses a plan to poison and have chief Gbanya murdered for passing the Chiefdom to Yoko, a mere woman. Lamboi then compels Musa to poison chief with Alligator gall when Yoko is not available in the courtyard. Part of Lamboi bitterness is the fact that he advised Gbanya not to undertake the Caulker campaign, but Yoko told him she needed more slaves to work on the farm he’d given her, so they had to go to war which was not their own. Consequently, many of their finest fighters, young men died just to satisfy the want of a woman. The fear of Yoko turning the chiefdom and leading Senehun astray makes them come with their plan to eliminate Gbanya.

In addition, as soon as Lamboi’s plan to take over from Gbanya yield no fruit.

This time around, they intend to kidnap and kill Ndapi’s daughter, Jeneba, bury her in a shallow grave. They will therefore trick and manipulate the people to believe Yoko used her as a sacrifice for more power and authority.

Answer Number 2

Foreshadowing is a device used in literature to hint at events that will happen later in the story. Shakespeare’s play ‘Hamlet’ is full of foreshadowing, and these subtle hints are used to build tension, create suspense, and foreshadow the tragic ending of the play.One of the most powerful examples of foreshadowing in the play occurs in Act 1, Scene 5, where Hamlet speaks to the ghost of his father. At the end of the scene, the ghost warns Hamlet not to harm his mother, as she will be punished by God for her sins. This foreshadows the tragic ending of the play, as both Hamlet and his mother meet their fate at the hands of the vengeful Laertes.

Another example of foreshadowing is the appearance of the players in Act 2, Scene 2. These actors will later perform a play that Hamlet has written, which will mirror the events of the play and help him to reveal Claudius’s guilt. This scene foreshadows the eventual downfall of the villainous king, even as he plots to destroy Hamlet.Soliloquies are another powerful literary device used in the play. Shakespeare uses soliloquies to give insights into the characters’ minds, and to reveal their deepest thoughts and feelings. One of the most famous soliloquies in the play is Hamlet’s ‘To be or not to be’ speech. This powerful soliloquy reveals Hamlet’s inner turmoil and his struggle with the idea of suicide.Another notable soliloquy occurs in Act 3, Scene 1, when Hamlet confronts Ophelia. In this emotional speech, Hamlet expresses his frustration with Ophelia’s inability to understand his pain. This soliloquy reveals Hamlet’s deep-seated misogyny, and his belief that women are incapable of understanding the complexities of his mind.In conclusion, the use of foreshadowing and soliloquies in Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ helps to create a richly complex and layered work, full of tension, emotion, and hidden meanings. These literary devices allow the audience to delve deeper into the minds of the characters, and to anticipate the tragic ending of the play.

Answer Number 3


The play opens in the morning, near the village center on the edge of the market. The ‘bush’ school, that is, the village school Lakunle, the school teacher is nearly twenty-three years old, dressed in an “old style and worn-out English suit, rough but not ragged, but clearly “a size or two too small”. Sidi carried a pail of water on her head and Lakunle complains bitterly about such an act because she is at risk of shortening her neck and also because she has exposed her shoulders for everyone in the village to feast his lustful eyes on. Sidi defends such an action when she says at she decides to fold the wrapper high so that she can breathe, and Lakunle insists that she could have worn something on top as most model do. Sidi becomes furious and reprimands Lakunle to desist from being a village gossip and also calls him “the mad man/of llunjunle. because of his meaningless words, but Lakunle is undaunted because he feels that women’s brain is naturally small, women are the weaker sex, only weaker breeds pound yams, bend to plant millet. He foresees that one, two years to come when machines will do those things and he also hints at his intention to turn llunjunle around for good. Sidi becomes fed up with the meaningless dialogue and demands her pail back angrily but debunks the payment of bride price.Part of Lakunle’s meeting with Sidi is to make known his intention to marry her and she insists that her bride price must be paid according to their custom and tradition and that marrying him without a price would make people think that she is no virgin and that would bring shame to her family.But Lakunle resists the idea and describes it as a savage custom that is barbaric and uncivilized. He goes further to educate Sidi on the implication of payment of the bride price and his plan. Lakunle calls Sidi a bush and uncivilized girl who does not want to appreciate and accept civilized romance and ideology.The introductory part of this play between Sidi and Lakunle shows the cultural gap versus modernity.

Answer Number 5


Throughout the play, Jimmy habitually subjects Helena to verbal and emotional assaults, employing her as a receptacle for his pent-up frustrations. His interactions with her are marked by an air of hostility, disdain, and biting sarcasm. Frequently, Jimmy derides Helena’s privileged upper-class background, readily dismissing her perspectives and values. Jimmy’s treatment of Helena appears to derive from his general dissatisfaction and anger with the world, as well as his own personal circumstances, rather than from any sincere romantic sentiment.While Jimmy’s exchanges with Helena may occasionally exhibit a flirtatious undertone and sporadic instances of camaraderie, they fail to provide a strong basis for genuine romantic love. Instead, their interactions are predominantly characterized by mutual disdain and antagonism, as well as a shared exasperation with social and political systems they perceive as oppressive.

Answer Number 8

in “Fences” by August Wilson. However, based on the events and interactions portrayed in the play, one can infer why Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy.

Firstly, Bono and Troy have known each other for a long time, and their friendship has endured through various challenges and hardships. Bono has seen Troy’s strengths and weaknesses, and vice versa. This familiarity and history create a strong bond of loyalty, respect, and familiarity.

Secondly, Bono admires Troy’s work ethic and sense of responsibility. Despite facing racial discrimination and economic obstacles, Troy has worked hard to provide for his family and maintain his sense of dignity. Bono respects his friend’s determination and perseverance, which inspires him to support him through thick and thin.

Lastly, Bono genuinely cares about Troy’s well-being and wants him to be happy. He listens patiently to Troy’s stories and concerns, and provides him with emotional support when needed. Bono is a true friend who stands by Troy’s side even when he disagrees with his actions.

In conclusion, Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy because of their shared history, admiration for Troy’s work ethic, and genuine care for his well-being. Their friendship is a source of mutual support, respect, and comfort.

Answer Number 11

“Do not go Gentle into that Good Night” is a powerful and poignant poem written by Dylan Thomas. The poet’s diction in this poem is striking and deliberate, creating a sense of urgency and emotional intensity.The poet’s choice of words is vivid and evocative, allowing the reader to connect with the poem on an emotional level. The repeated use of the imperative phrase “Do not go gentle” throughout the poem emphasizes the poet’s plea for resistance and defiance in the face of death. The word “gentle” itself conveys a sense of surrender and acceptance, contrasting with the poet’s desire for his loved ones to fight against the inevitable.Furthermore, the poet employs strong, resonant language to depict various stages of life and the emotions associated with them. He uses contrasting pairs of words to heighten the emotional impact, such as “light” and “dark,” “day” and “night,” and “life” and “grave.” These choices create a sense of tension and emphasize the importance of living fully and passionately, even in the face of death.The poet’s use of vivid imagery is another noteworthy aspect of the poem’s diction. Thomas employs vivid metaphors and descriptive language to depict different types of people and their attitudes towards death. For instance, he describes “wise men” as “the good,” while “wild men” and “grave men” represent those who have lived passionately or with regret. This imagery adds depth and complexity to the poem, inviting readers to reflect on their own lives and the choices they make.

Answer Number 12

The use of imagery in “Caged Bird” is central to its impact. Through vivid and contrasting images, Angelou effectively captures the stark difference between freedom and confinement, inviting readers to empathize with the bird’s plight. The poem begins with the lines:”A free bird leapson the back of the windand floats downstreamtill the current endsand dips his wingin the orange sun raysand dares to claim the sky.”In these lines, Angelou creates a vibrant image of a free bird soaring in the sky, engaging the reader’s senses and evoking a feeling of liberation. The bird’s ability to “leap,” “float,” and “claim the sky” conjures a sense of boundless movement and limitless possibilities. The imagery of the “orange sun rays” adds warmth and brilliance to the scene, enhancing the contrast with the subsequent description of the caged bird.The poem then transitions to the caged bird’s perspective, exploring its restricted existence:”But a bird that stalksdown his narrow cagecan seldom see throughhis bars of ragehis wings are clipped andhis feet are tiedso he opens his throat to sing.”Here, Angelou uses imagery to depict the limitations faced by the caged bird. The bird is described as “stalk[ing] down his narrow cage,” which suggests a sense of confinement and frustration. The metaphorical “bars of rage” represent not only physical barriers but also the bird’s pent-up emotions and desire for freedom. By contrasting the bird’s clipped wings and tied feet with its defiant act of opening its throat to sing, Angelou highlights the indomitable spirit that remains despite the bird’s captivity.The poem continues to employ vivid imagery throughout, illustrating the stark disparities between the free bird and the caged bird. The free bird is described as “named of the wind” and “trembling back to the sky,” invoking a sense of fluidity and grace. In contrast, the caged bird’s movements are restricted and confined: “his wings are clipped,” and he “beats his bars in vain.” These images create a stark juxtaposition between freedom and oppression, emphasizing the longing for liberation that permeates the poem.

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