2023 WAEC Geography Questions & Answers (Essay & Objective)

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2023 WAEC Geography Questions and Answers

(Essay and Objectives)

2023 WAEC Geography Answers: Get WAEC 2023 Geography Questions and answers for Essay, Objectives, Practical and Physical Geography. WAEC 2023, WAEC 2023 Exam Runs.

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The 2023 WAEC Geography (Essay, Objectives, Practical and Physical Geography) examination took place on Friday, 2nd June, 2023 from 9:30AM to 4:50PM (4Hour 50 Minutes).

WAEC 2023 Geography Questions

1a. Mention five Factors that hinders large scale production
1b. Mention five ways to acquire large scale production

2a. Mention Five characteristics of rural settlements in tropical Africa
2b. Mention Five ways in which rural settlements depend on urban settlements

3a. Mention five advantages of Rail transportation
3b. Mention five disadvantages of Rail transportation
3c. Mention five soluton to the disadvantages of Rail transportation

4a. What is Internal Trade?
4b. List 7 problems of Internal Trade
4c. Mention six ways of improving Internal Trade

WAEC 2023 Geography Essay Answers

Answer Number 1


(i) Shortage Of Raw Materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.

(ii) Political Instability: Frequent changes in governments and incessant civil wars in African countries discourage foreign investors.

(iii) Inadequate skilled man-power: Skilled man-power required for high industrial growth is grossly inadequate in developing countries.

(iv) Poor Management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in developed countries and these are indicators of poor management.

(v) Competition from foreign goods: Because of the high quality of foreign goods other industries usually not be patronized.


(i) Acquisition of Skills: Skills should be acquired by people through regular training.

(ii) Good government policies: There should be good government policies to protect the industries.

(iii) Establishment of more power plants: Power plants such as thermal electricity plants should be established to boost power supply to industries.

(iv) Increase in wages/salaries of workers: There should be increase in wages/salaries of workers in industries to boost their Morales and increase productivity.

(v) Creation of Industrial Zones: These will also provide conducive environment with all the infrastructure facilities for industrialization.

Answer Number 2


Five characteristics of rural settlements in tropical Africa:

1. Agricultural economy: Rural settlements in tropical Africa are predominantly agrarian, with agriculture being the primary economic activity. People rely on subsistence farming, livestock rearing, and small-scale agricultural production for their livelihoods.

2. Traditional housing: Rural settlements often have traditional housing structures made of locally available materials such as mud, thatch, or wood. These structures are designed to suit the local climate and cultural preferences.

3. Limited infrastructure: Rural settlements in tropical Africa often lack adequate infrastructure compared to urban areas. Basic amenities like electricity, clean water supply, healthcare facilities, and transportation networks may be limited or lacking altogether.

4. Close-knit communities: Rural settlements typically have close-knit communities with strong social ties and communal values. People often live in extended family units and engage in collective activities such as farming, celebrations, and community decision-making.

5. Limited access to services: Due to their remote locations, rural settlements may have limited access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and government institutions. Access to quality education and healthcare facilities may be inadequate, resulting in challenges for rural residents.


Five ways in which rural settlements depend on urban settlements:

1. Market access: Rural settlements rely on urban settlements as market centers for selling their agricultural produce and acquiring necessary goods and services that are not available locally. Urban centers act as economic hubs where rural farmers can sell their surplus produce and purchase items they cannot produce themselves.

2. Supply of goods and services: Rural settlements depend on urban settlements for the supply of goods and services that are not available in rural areas. This includes items like machinery, fertilizers, construction materials, healthcare services, and educational resources.

3. Employment opportunities: Many rural inhabitants depend on urban settlements for employment opportunities. People may migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of better job prospects and higher wages, particularly in non-agricultural sectors such as manufacturing, construction, and services.

4. Transportation and connectivity: Rural settlements often rely on urban centers for transportation and connectivity. Urban areas typically have better road networks, public transportation systems, and access to telecommunications infrastructure. Rural residents may travel to urban areas for education, healthcare, and to connect with wider social networks.

5. Government services and administration: Rural settlements often depend on urban settlements for government services and administration. Government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and other essential services are usually concentrated in urban areas. Rural residents may need to travel to urban centers to access these services or engage with government institutions.

Answer Number 3


(i) Rail transportation is the most convenient means of transportation bulky goods (raw and manufactured goods) to and from industrial areas.

(ii) It is very cheap in the transportation of people and goods from place to place.

(iii) It helps to open up new land which is potentially good for minerals and agricultural crops.

(iv) Rail Transportation provides a means of bringing bulky imported goods from the ports into the interior of the country.

(v) Create access to parts of the country which are far from navigable waterways.


(i) Lack of spare parts, narrow gauges with single tracks.

(ii) Lack of technical know-how and poor maintenance.

(iii) Inadequate Financing or Funding.

(iv) It had very low patronage and high competition with not her forms of transport.


(i) Spare parts should be made available always.

(ii) People should be trained on rail maintenance.

(iii) Rail Transportation should be properly funded.

(iv) Railway fare should be cheap enough to attract passenger.

Answer Number 4


Internal Trade also know as Domestic trade is the type of trade which involves the buying and selling or exchange of goods and services within the country.


(i) Low technology generally does not improve internal trade.

(ii) Inter communal strife or political instability do slow down internal trade.

(iii) Similarity of products for limit internal trade in Nigeria.

(iv) Smuggling of products to neighboring countries thereby, causing artificial scarcity limit internal trade.

(v) High Rate of rural-urban migrations.

(vi) High level of pests and diseases attack on crops, leading to low harvest.

(vii) Unfavorable climate which can lead to low yield and harvest.


(i) Fosters regional Cooperation: Internal trade fosters regional cooperation.

(ii) Provision of Job Opportunity: It also provides employment to many people involved in trade.

(iii) Growth of Ancillary Services: Internal trade emails the growth of ancillary services like agro-allied industry and banking.

(iv) Provision of raw materials: Internal trade provides raw materials for industries e.g. tomato juice/paste.

(v) Source of Income: Internal trade provides income to individuals and the nation.

(vi) Diffusion of Ideas: Internal trade also promotes the diffusion of ideas when people from different regions come together.

WAEC 2023 Geography Objectives Answers






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